The bullet is one piece of a total of four components found in a cartridge, and its shape affects its use.
In the old days, they were simple cast-lead balls.
Today the bullet’s nose has six shapes
Number 1 – The round nose
Number 2 – The semi-round nose
Number 3 – The flat nose
Number 4 – The wadcutter
Number 5 – The semi-wadcutter
Note – Wadcutters are special-purpose flat-fronted bullets specifically designed for target shooting, and plinking.
Number 6 – The pointed or spitzer-tangent ogive
Note – In ballistics or aerodynamics, an ogive is a pointed, curved surface mainly used to form the approximately streamlined nose of a bullet or other projectile, reducing air resistance or the drag of air. In fact, the French word ogive can be translated as “nose cone” or “warhead.”
Its base has five shapes
Number 1 – The flat-base bullets are the most common type, as well as the easiest to manufacture. This base is found on many hunting rifle bullets and most handgun bullets.
Number 2 – The hemispherical base is rarely seen in the United States.
Number 3 – The boattail-rebated base is a popular choice for target shooting and hunting at long ranges, The rebated design is not as efficient as the standard boattail, but easier to manufacture.
Number four – The boattail-standard base is by far the most popular low-drag design.
Number 5 – The hollow or recessed base is often found on handgun bullets where an effort has been made to maximize bearing surface sealing. This type of base is seldom used in modern rifle bullets.
And there are ten common types of bullets
Number 1 – The full-metal-jacket (FMJ) is a common type of military design that encases the projectile (Bullet) in a hard metal exterior. The jacket allows for higher muzzle velocities over bare lead without depositing significant amounts of metal inside the barrel.
Number 2 – The hollow-point design is standard on many handgun bullets and lightweight, small-caliber rifle bullets. They have a hollowed-out center causing the bullet to deform on impact causing significant damage.
Number 3 – The soft-point bullet is the favorite for nearly all types of hunting. It is sometimes called a “partially jacketed bullet.” Unlike a full metal jacket that completely encases the bullet in a coating of metal alloy, the soft point leaves a portion exposed.
Number 4 – The hollow soft-point combines the best of hollow and soft-point designs in a revolver bullet.
Number 5 – The capped bullet design has a soft metal cap over a soft point that collapses on impact, aiding expansion.
Number 6 – The tipped expanding bullet features a metal or plastic tip on the ogive that is designed to prevent tip deformation in the magazine, enhance the ballistic coefficient, and assist expansion on impact.
Number 7 – The frangible bullets are usually lead-free bullets made of composite materials that are designed to break up into small particles on impact with a hard surface.
Number 8 – The bonded bullets are a favorite with big-game hunters. Bonding the core to the jacket ensures the controlled-expansion performance desirable for killing animals like elk, moose, and bear.
Number 9 – The solid bullets may be either monolithic (made of one piece of homogeneous metal) or heavily jacketed with a lead core. Also, some hybrid types combine a monolithic body with a heavy metal insert. The purpose of a solid is to penetrate dangerous game reliably.
Number 10 – The hybrid bullets combine two or more of the above characteristics.